Google Data Analytics Capstone Project

Analyzed by Servet Demir

Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA) measures 15-year-olds’ ability to use their reading, mathematics and science knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges. Also, PISA measures different concepts (Well-being, educational careers, ICT familiarities, financial literacy) with questionnaires.

In this study, I focused on ICT familiarities topic.

PISA 2018 assessed students’ science, reading, and mathematics literacy in about 80 countries and education systems. Reading was the focal subject of the 2018 data collection, as it was in 2009. PISA 2018 also included the optional assessment of financial literacy which the United States administered. Data from the core 2018 reading, mathematics, science literacy, and financial literacy assessment are now available.

(https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/)

Research Questions

RQ1: How does the first use of digital devices by students differ according to the income groups of the countries?

RQ2: How old were students when you first accessed the Internet differ according to the income groups of the countries?

RQ3: How time students use the Internet at school and outside of school differ according to the income groups of the countries?

RQ4: How time students spend using digital devices during math, social sciences, and science class differ according to the income groups of the countries?

RQ5: Students using digital media and digital devices skills differ according to the income groups of the countries?

Method

PISA shares all raw data on web page (https://www.oecd.org/pisa/data/2018database/)

All students’ questionnaire data is in same file (SPSS or SAS file) ( https://webfs.oecd.org/pisa2018/SPSS_STU_QQQ.zip).

I prefer the SPSS file because I can clean data with RStudio.

The questionnaire with related to ICT familiarities ( https://www.oecd.org/pisa/data/2018database/CY7_201710_QST_MS_ICQ_NoNotes_final.pdf)

Income level (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GNI_(nominal)_per_capita)

Data Cleanin Process

Detailed explanation and cleaned data in GitHub Project

(https://github.com/servetd/PISA2018)

Findings

In the following link, you can find interactive charts

Findings

School Time

High-income Group

According to spend time during classroom mathematics and social sciences lessons, Singapore has the highest ratio in no time, Iceland has the lowest ratio in no time. In science lessons, Singapore has the highest ratio in no time, USA has the lowest ratio in no time.

Upper-Middle-income Group

According to spend time during classroom mathematics, science, and social sciences lessons, Albania has the highest ratio in no time, Kazakhstan has the lowest ratio in no time.

Out of School Time

High-income Group

According to spend time out of classroom mathematics, science, and social sciences lessons, Switzerland has the highest ratio in no time, USA has the lowest ratio in no time.

Upper-Middle-income Group

According to spend time out of classroom mathematics, Turkey has the highest ratio in no time, Kazakhistan has the lowest ratio in no time.

According to spend time out of classroom science and social sciences lessons, Turkey has the highest ratio in no time, Russia has the lowest ratio in no time.

In the “I read information about digital devices to be independent.” item, In the high-income group, Singapore has highly positive, Switzerland has the lowest competency.

In the upper-middle-income group, Albania has the highest competency and Bulgaria has the lowest competency.

In the “I use digital devices as I want to use them.” item, in the high-income group, Singapore has highly positive, Switzerland has the lowest competency.

In the upper-middle-income group, Kazakistan has the highest competency, and Bulgaria and Turkey have the lowest competency.

In the “If I need new software, I install it by myself.” item, in the high-income group, Iceland has highly positive, Croatia has the lowest competency.

In the upper-middle-income group, Albania has the highest competency, and Bulgaria has the lowest competency.

n the “If I have a problem with digital devices I start to solve it on my own.” item, in the high-income group, Croatia has highly positive, USA has the lowest competency.

In the upper-middle-income group, Kazakhistan has the highest competency, and Bulgaria has the lowest competency.

In the “If I need a new application, I choose it by myself.” item, in the high-income group, Croatia has highly positive, Switzerland has the lowest competency.

In the upper-middle-income group, Kazakhistan has the highest competency, and Turkey has the lowest competency.

Conclusion

C1: In the high-income group, Switzerland has the highest older country in terms of when students first used a digital device. Croatia has the youngest country in terms of when students first used a digital device. In the upper-middle-income group, Bulgaria has the youngest country in terms of when students first used a digital device. Turkey has the highest older country in terms of when students first used a digital device.

C2: In the high-income group, Switzerland has the oldest country in terms of when students first accessed the internet. USA has the youngest country in terms of when students first accessed the internet. In the middle-income group, Bulgaria has the youngest country in terms of when students first accessed the internet. In the middle-income group, Kazakhstan has the highest older country in terms of when students first accessed the internet.

C3: In the high-income group, Switzerland has the lowest average and the USA has the highest average In the upper-middle-income group, Albania has the lowest average and Bulgaria has the highest average.

C4: During classroom mathematics and social sciences lessons, Singapore has the highest ratio in no time, Iceland has the lowest ratio in no time. In science lessons, Singapore has the highest ratio in no time, USA has the lowest ratio in no time.

Upper-Middle-income Group, during classroom mathematics, science, and social sciences lessons, Albania has the highest ratio in no time, Kazakhstan has the lowest ratio in no time.

Out of classroom mathematics, science, and social sciences lessons, Switzerland has the highest ratio in no time, USA has the lowest ratio in no time. In the Upper-Middle-income Group, out-of-classroom mathematics, Turkey has the highest ratio in no time, Kazakhistan has the lowest ratio in no time. Science and social sciences lessons, Turkey has the highest ratio in no time, Russia has the lowest ratio in no time.

C5: In the “I read information about digital devices to be independent.” item, In the high-income group, Singapore has a highly positive, Switzerland has the lowest competency. In the upper-middle-income group, Albania has the highest competency and Bulgaria has the lowest competency.

In the “I use digital devices as I want to use them.” item, in the high-income group, Singapore has highly positive, Switzerland has the lowest competency. In the upper-middle-income group, Kazakistan has the highest competency, and Bulgaria and Turkey have the lowest competency.

In the “If I need new software, I install it by myself.” item, in the high-income group, Iceland has highly positive, Croatia has the lowest competency. In the upper-middle-income group, Albania has the highest competency, and Bulgaria has the lowest competency.

In the “If I have a problem with digital devices I start to solve it on my own.” item, in the high-income group, Croatia has highly positive, USA has the lowest competency. In the upper-middle-income group, Kazakhistan has the highest competency, and Bulgaria has the lowest competency.

In the “If I need a new application, I choose it by myself.” item, in the high-income group, Croatia has highly positive, Switzerland has the lowest competency. In the upper-middle-income group, Kazakhistan has the highest competency, and Turkey has the lowest competency.

Recommendations

Firstly, I choose five countries in each income level. Further researchers may choose all countries in one income level to compare the countries. Also, to compare income levels one can use the average for each issue.

I graduated from Bosphorus University Physics Teaching Program in 1995. In 2001, I earned my master’s degree and in 2006, Ph.D. in Educational Science.